Lung Cancer Worldwide Editorials
Lung Cancer in the Czech RepublicThe Czech Republic (CR) is situated in the “heart of Europe” and borders Slovakia, Austria, Poland, and Germany (Fig. 1). The CR was part of Czechoslovakia until 1992. Currently, the CR ranks eighth in terms of population (10.7 million) and 15th in the area (77,247 km2) among the 27 European Union (EU) member states, and the standard of living reaches 92.9% of the EU average measured by gross domestic product (GDP) per inhabitant according to purchasing power parity.1
Lung Cancer in TurkeyTurkey stretches from the Balkans to the Middle East and is among the larger countries in terms of land area and population (Fig. 1). Turkey’s population of approximately 85 million people encompasses a diverse genomic, ethnic, and cultural heritage with roots from several empires and civilizations dating back to the Paleolithic age. According to the GLOBOCAN 20201 registry, lung cancer (LC) comprises 17.6% of all cancer types. It ranks highest in Turkey, with 41,000 new cases in 2020 and an age-adjusted incidence rate of 41.7 and 8.7 per 100,000 for men and women, respectively.
Lung Cancer in RwandaRwanda is a landlocked country in East Africa with an estimated population of approximately 12.5 million in 2018, making it the second most densely populated country in Africa.1,2 Rwanda is counted among low-income countries, with a little more than 80% of Rwandans living in rural areas. Women represent approximately a half of the population.3 Figure 1 is the map of Rwanda in relation to its neighboring countries.
Lung Cancer in SerbiaThe Republic of Serbia is located in Central and Southeastern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula (Fig. 1). According to official government sources1, the population of Serbia is 7,186,862 (without Kosovo and Metohija), of which 1,659,440 reside in the capital, Belgrade. Serbia has two autonomous provinces, Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija, and is predominantly inhabited by Orthodox Christians (84.6%), along with Roman Catholics (5%), Muslims (3%), and other religions (7.4%).
Lung Cancer in ColombiaColombia is a country on the northwest of South America, and it is divided into 32 departments, a capital district, 1121 municipalities, and indigenous territories. Population growth in the period 1990 to 2016 was 42.0%, during which time population structure became regressive and older, with most living in urban areas (82%) (Fig. 1A–C). The Colombian health system is made up of a social security sector and a private sector. The system's backbone is the General Social Security Health System, with a coverage near to 100%.
Lung Cancer in GermanySince the reunification of the Federal Republic of Germany with the German Democratic Republic in 1990, Germany, situated in middle Europe, has become the most populous country in Europe with 83.5 million inhabitants. With a gross domestic product of 3.8 trillion U.S. dollars (2020), it is the largest national economy in the European Union and the fourth worldwide. As a result of the political reorganization after World War II, a federal organization has been adopted, delegating a large number of tasks to each of the 16 federal states, thereby, enabling a more regionalized approach (e.g., education or the health system).
Lung Cancer in PakistanPakistan is the fifth most populous country in the world with an estimated population of more than 207 million located in South Central Asia between the Himalayas and Arabian Gulf. It has a population density of 260 per km2 with 10 major metropolitan cities. Although each of these 10 cities has a population of more than 10 million, only 36.4% of the total population lives in urban areas. Administratively, it consists of four provinces and federal capital territory as illustrated in Figure 1.1 Pakistan ranks as a low- to middle-income country with a gross national income per capita of USD 1410 according to the World Bank 2020 data.
Lung Cancer in SudanSudan, with an area of 1,886,068 km2, is the third-largest country in Africa. This African Arab country is surrounded by North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, and the Middle East. In 2020, the population of Sudan was about 43.8 million.1 The population structure is young, with approximately 40% under 15 years of age, as illustrated in Figure 1. Sudan is a low-income country despite its abundant natural resources, with approximately half of the population living below the poverty line. In 2011, with the independence of South Sudan under the term of Comprehensive Peace Agreement,2 Sudan lost almost half of its revenue, as South Sudan took with it approximately 75% of all oil production and reserves.
Lung Cancer in JapanJapan is located in East Asia and consists of five large islands and numerous smaller islands, with a total of 6852 islands (Fig. 1). Mountainous areas cover 75% of the country, and the population is concentrated in the plains along the coast. Because it is an island nation and because of the policy of seclusion that lasted for more than 300 years during the Edo period, it is almost ethnically homogeneous. The total population is 125.36 million, ranking 11th in the world. The average life expectancy of men is 81 years, and that of women is 87 years, making Japan a country with one of the highest life expectancies in the world.
Lung Cancer in the United KingdomThe U.K. population is approximately 67 million, of whom most (85%) reside in England, with 8%, 5%, and 3% residing in Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland (NI), respectively. Most U.K. health care including cancer diagnosis and treatment is delivered in a “free-at-the point of care” National Health Service (NHS), a globally unique government-funded health care network, paid for through taxation, with new interventions undergoing cost-effectiveness appraisal for reimbursement. Private health insurance is uncommon (11%).
Lung Cancer in NepalNepal is a beautiful, landlocked country located between India and the People’s Republic of China, with rich cultural heritage and diverse nature. Nepal, with an area of 147,516 km2, occupies 0.03% land area of the world and has a population of approximately 30 million.1 Although small geographically, the topography extends from the flat Terai plains in the south to central hills and high Himalayas in the north. Nepal is home to people of 126 different caste or ethnic groups, speaking 123 different languages.
Lung Cancer in BelgiumThe kingdom of Belgium with its capital Brussels is located in Western Europe (Fig. 1) and has a population of 11,492,641 inhabitants (January 2020) for a surface of 30,689 km2. The country is a member of the European Union (EU) and federally organized with a Dutch-speaking majority in the northern Flemish region, a French-speaking region (Wallonia) in the south, and the Brussels capital region. Its population is mainly of Caucasian ethnicity, with 10% immigrants from different non-EU countries, mostly Africa and Middle East.
Lung Cancer in VietnamVietnam, a low–middle-income Southeast Asian country with a population of 96.5 million, is the 15th most populous country in the world.1 In 1986, the Vietnamese Government introduced Doi Moi economic reform, transforming Vietnam from a socialist to a market economy. As a result, Vietnam achieved an annual gross domestic product growth rate of 6.2% to 7.02% from 2011 to 2019.1 Rapid economic growth was associated with improved general health. Life expectancy at birth increased from 71 years in 1990 (66.0 y for men and 75.1 y for women) to 73.6 years (71.0 y for men and 76.3 y for women) in 2019.
Lung Cancer in IndiaIndia is a land of diversity with a motley of cultures, religions, languages, festivals, and ethnic groups. The country’s population as of 2020 is more than 1.38 billion, which accounts for 17.7% of the total world population with a population density of 464 per km2. The average age of Indians is 28.4 years, with more than half of the population below 25 years. Table 1 describes the demographics and key statistics of India. India is the fifth largest economy in the world with nominal gross domestic product (GDP) but ranks third in terms of purchasing power parity.
Lung Cancer in GreeceGreece is a South European country, located at the east part of the Mediterranean basin and the southern edge of the Balcan Peninsula, with a population of 10,720,000 in 2019. In the past decade, Greece’s mixed economy has gradually recovered from the financial deficit crisis that burst out in 2009 and led to the supervised funding of the country from the European Union (EU) and International Monetary Fund for several years. With a nominal per capita income of U.S. $31,413 in 2019 (adjusted to purchasing power parity), Greece has now reached approximately two-thirds of the EU-28 average.
Lung Cancer in SingaporeSingapore is a small island city-state in Southeast Asia (Fig. 1), with a multiracial population of 5.7 million people, comprising 76% Chinese, 15% Malays, and 9% Indians and other races.1 Lung cancer presents a significant health challenge to our aging population.
Lung Cancer in AustriaAustria is located in Central Europe and surrounded by Germany and the Czech Republic in the North, Slovakia and Hungary in the East, Slovenia and Italy in the South, and Liechtenstein and Switzerland in the West (Fig. 1). Austria has been a member of the European Union since 1995. Austria has a current population of approximately 8.9 million people and consists of nine Federal Provinces (Fig. 1). Vienna with nearly 2 million inhabitants is the capital city and has regularly been ranked among the most livable cities in the world.
Lung Cancer in Republic of ChinaLocated in the west Pacific between Japan and the Philippines, the Republic of China has a population of more than 23 million people. Malignant tumors are the leading cause of death in the Republic of China, and lung cancer is the main cause of death for male and female individuals with cancers.1 In 2018, the five-year survival rate of lung cancer was approximately 26.5%. Between 1998 and 2018, the number of lung cancer deaths increased from 5749 to 9388. Approximately 70% of the 14,282 individuals diagnosed as having cancers of the lung, bronchus, or trachea in 2017 had stage III or IV lung cancer.
Lung Cancer in the NetherlandsThe Netherlands is a small European country with a population of 17.45 million (September 2020) distributed over 41,543 km2.1 There are 79 hospitals (in total, 109 locations), of which seven are university medical centers, one cancer center, and 28 large teaching hospitals. On average, the hospitals are within easy reach, as 99% of the Dutch inhabitants can reach a hospital by car within 30 minutes (Fig. 1).2
Lung Cancer in France“It is what we believe we already know that often prevents us from learning” Claude Bernard (1813–1878)
Lung Cancer in AustraliaAustralia’s population of 25 million lives in eight states and territories covering 7.6 million km2. There is a strong history of migration and cultural diversity with 29.7% of the population born overseas. The population is aging, with the proportion aged 65 years and over increasing from 12.3% to 15.9% between 1999 and 2019, and this is projected to increase further.
Lung Cancer in ThailandThailand covers a total area of approximately 198,000 square miles with a population of 67.9 million people, making it the 12th largest country in Asia.1,2 The capital city is Bangkok. Thailand is divided into six regions by geography: north, northeast, central, south, east, and west, with respective differences in weather, culture, ethnicity, the local language, and lifestyle of each local population. The north and the west are the country’s highlands with many mountains, woodlands, rivers, waterfalls, and dams.
Lung Cancer in SpainLung cancer is the fourth most common cancer diagnosed in Spain in both sexes, after colorectal, prostate, and breast cancers (Table 1), with a 5-year survival of 12.7% in men and 17.6% in women reported for the period 2008 to 2013. In 2019, the incidence of lung cancer in Spain was 29,053 cases (22,083 in men and 7420 in women).1 Whereas the incidence continues to increase (29,638 estimated new cases of lung cancer), this is seen mainly among women, with an estimated 5.0% increase in 2020; in contrast, a downward trend is seen in men (−1.1%).
Lung Cancer in People’s Republic of ChinaAs of 2018, the People’s Republic of China was the most populous country in the world, reaching a total population of approximately 1.39 billion people, of which about 831 million and 564 million people lived in urban and rural regions, respectively. The 2020 population is estimated to be 1.44 billion, remaining the largest in the world. Owing to the country’s large population and rapid socioeconomic development, cancerr epresents a significant health, financial, and societal burden. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in the People’s Republic of China and has been increasing over the past decades.
Lung Cancer in LithuaniaLithuania is a Northeastern European country (Fig. 1) the southernmost of the Baltic states. According to statistics in 2019, Lithuania had an estimated population of 2.79 million residents. In March 1990, Lithuania declared its independence from the Soviet Union and in 1991, became a member of the United Nations. Since then, there have been a series of reforms, both in the national economy and in the health system.