Pathway of the Month
The mTOR Pathway in Lung Cancer and Implications for Therapy and Biomarker AnalysisMammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that functions as a key regulatory protein in normal cell growth, survival, metabolism, development, and angiogenic pathways. Deregulation of these processes is a required hallmark of cancer, and dysregulation of mTOR signaling frequently occurs in a wide variety of malignancies, including lung cancer. Targeting of mTOR is thus an attractive strategy in the development of therapeutic agents against lung cancer. In this review, the mTOR-signaling pathway is described, highlighting opportunities for therapeutic intervention and biomarker analysis, and clinical trials in lung cancer including both non–small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer.
The Insulin-Like Growth Factor Pathway in Lung CancerThe insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway is involved in the normal control of fetal development, tissue growth, and metabolism. Two distinct ligands (insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1] and IGF-2) plus insulin, and two receptors (insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 [IGF-1R] and the insulin receptor) capable of both homo- and heteropolymerization mediate the actions of this pathway. Cellular functions of IGF-regulated signaling are influenced by the expression of a variety of receptor docking proteins, including four different insulin receptor substrate proteins.