- Substantial changes in the 2021 WHO Classification of Tumors of the Pleura and Pericardium since the 2015 WHO Classification include the following: (1) pleural and pericardial tumors have been combined in one chapter whereas in the 2015 WHO, pericardial tumors were classified with cardiac tumors; (2) well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma has been renamed well-differentiated papillary mesothelial tumor given growing evidence that these tumors exhibit relatively indolent behavior; (3) localized and diffuse mesothelioma no longer include the term “malignant” as a prefix; (4) mesothelioma in situ has been added to the 2021 classification because these lesions can now be recognized by loss of BAP1 and/or MTAP by immunohistochemistry and/or CDKN2A homozygous deletion by fluorescence in situ hybridization; (5) the three main histologic subtypes (i.e., epithelioid, biphasic, and sarcomatoid) remain the same but architectural patterns and cytologic and stromal features are more formally incorporated into the 2021 classification on the basis of their prognostic significance; (6) nuclear grading for epithelioid diffuse mesothelioma is introduced, and it is recommended to record this and other histologically prognostic features in pathology reports; (7) BAP1, EZH2, and MTAP immunohistochemistry have been found to be useful in separating benign mesothelial proliferations from mesothelioma; (8) biphasic mesothelioma can be diagnosed in small biopsies having both epithelioid and sarcomatoid components even if the amount of one component is less than 10%; and (9) the most frequently altered genes in diffuse pleural mesothelioma include BAP1, CDKN2A, NF2, TP53, SETD2, and SETDB1.
- The 2021 WHO Classification of Thoracic Tumours was published earlier this year, with classification of lung tumors being one of the chapters. The principles remain those of using morphology first, supported by immunohistochemistry, and then molecular techniques. In 2015, there was particular emphasis on using immunohistochemistry to make classification more accurate. In 2021, there is greater emphasis throughout the book on advances in molecular pathology across all tumor types. Major features within this edition are (1) broader emphasis on genetic testing than in the 2015 WHO Classification; (2) a section entirely dedicated to the classification of small diagnostic samples; (3) continued recommendation to document percentages of histologic patterns in invasive nonmucinous adenocarcinomas, with utilization of these features to apply a formal grading system, and using only invasive size for T-factor size determination in part lepidic nonmucinous lung adenocarcinomas as recommended by the eighth edition TNM classification; (4) recognition of spread through airspaces as a histologic feature with prognostic significance; (5) moving lymphoepithelial carcinoma to squamous cell carcinomas; (6) update on evolving concepts in lung neuroendocrine neoplasm classification; (7) recognition of bronchiolar adenoma/ciliated muconodular papillary tumor as a new entity within the adenoma subgroup; (8) recognition of thoracic SMARCA4-deficient undifferentiated tumor; and (9) inclusion of essential and desirable diagnostic criteria for each tumor.
- The fifth edition of the WHO Classification of Thoracic Tumours1 presents an updated classification of cardiac tumors, detailed in Table 1. As in previous iterations, the tumors are stratified into benign and malignant varieties, with a separate section to address hematolymphoid neoplasms of the heart.
- This overview of the fifth edition of the WHO classification of thymic epithelial tumors (including thymomas, thymic carcinomas, and thymic neuroendocrine tumors [NETs]), mediastinal germ cell tumors, and mesenchymal neoplasms aims to (1) list established and new tumor entities and subtypes and (2) focus on diagnostic, molecular, and conceptual advances since publication of the fourth edition in 2015. Diagnostic advances are best exemplified by the immunohistochemical characterization of adenocarcinomas and the recognition of genetic translocations in metaplastic thymomas, rare B2 and B3 thymomas, and hyalinizing clear cell carcinomas.
- The isolation and analysis of circulating cell-free tumor DNA in plasma is a powerful tool with considerable potential to improve clinical outcomes across multiple cancer types, including NSCLC. Assays of this nature that use blood as opposed to tumor samples are frequently referred to as liquid biopsies. An increasing number of innovative platforms have been recently developed that improve not only the fidelity of the molecular analysis but also the number of tests performed on a single specimen.
- This article reviews the nomenclature of benign and malignant neoplasm of the heart and pericardium in the 4th edition of the World Health Organization's Classification, with emphasis on differences since the 3rd edition of 2004. The tumours are divided into benign, malignant, and intermediate tumors of uncertain behavior, with separate sections on germ cell tumours and tumors of the pericardium. There are important updates in the sarcoma classification, with emphasis on the most common site, the left atrium.
- The 2015 World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Tumors of the Lung, Pleura, Thymus and Heart has just been published with numerous important changes from the 2004 WHO classification. The most significant changes in this edition involve (1) use of immunohistochemistry throughout the classification, (2) a new emphasis on genetic studies, in particular, integration of molecular testing to help personalize treatment strategies for advanced lung cancer patients, (3) a new classification for small biopsies and cytology similar to that proposed in the 2011 Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society classification, (4) a completely different approach to lung adenocarcinoma as proposed by the 2011 Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society classification, (5) restricting the diagnosis of large cell carcinoma only to resected tumors that lack any clear morphologic or immunohistochemical differentiation with reclassification of the remaining former large cell carcinoma subtypes into different categories, (6) reclassifying squamous cell carcinomas into keratinizing, nonkeratinizing, and basaloid subtypes with the nonkeratinizing tumors requiring immunohistochemistry proof of squamous differentiation, (7) grouping of neuroendocrine tumors together in one category, (8) adding NUT carcinoma, (9) changing the term sclerosing hemangioma to sclerosing pneumocytoma, (10) changing the name hamartoma to “pulmonary hamartoma,” (11) creating a group of PEComatous tumors that include (a) lymphangioleiomyomatosis, (b) PEComa, benign (with clear cell tumor as a variant) and (c) PEComa, malignant, (12) introducing the entity pulmonary myxoid sarcoma with an EWSR1–CREB1 translocation, (13) adding the entities myoepithelioma and myoepithelial carcinomas, which can show EWSR1 gene rearrangements, (14) recognition of usefulness of WWTR1–CAMTA1 fusions in diagnosis of epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas, (15) adding Erdheim–Chester disease to the lymphoproliferative tumor, and (16) a group of tumors of ectopic origin to include germ cell tumors, intrapulmonary thymoma, melanoma and meningioma.
- Therapeutic antibodies to programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1 show promising clinical results. Anti-PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) may be a biomarker to select patients more likely to respond to these treatments. However, the development of at least four different therapeutics, each with a different anti-PD-L1 IHC assay, has raised concerns among pathologists and oncologists alike. This article reviews existing data on the IHC biomarker aspects of studies using these drugs in non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and considers the challenges ahead, should these drug/IHC assay combinations reach routine practice.
- Classification of lung neuroendocrine (NE) tumors is a step-wise process with four tumor categories being identified by morphology, namely typical carcinoid (TC), atypical carcinoid, large-cell NE carcinoma, and small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Ki-67 antigen or protein (henceforth simply Ki-67) has been largely studied in these tumors, but the clinical implications are so far not clear. A well-defined role has regarded the diagnostic use in the separation of TC and AC from SCLC in nonsurgical specimens, with monoclonal antibody MIB-1 resulting in the most used reagent after antigen retrieval procedures.