Early Detection and Screening
- The present review is an update of the research and development efforts regarding the use of molecular biomarkers in the lung cancer screening setting. The two main unmet clinical needs, namely, the refinement of risk to improve the selection of individuals undergoing screening and the characterization of undetermined nodules found during the computed tomography–based screening process are the object of the biomarkers described in the present review. We first propose some principles to optimize lung cancer biomarker discovery projects.
- The isolation and analysis of circulating cell-free tumor DNA in plasma is a powerful tool with considerable potential to improve clinical outcomes across multiple cancer types, including NSCLC. Assays of this nature that use blood as opposed to tumor samples are frequently referred to as liquid biopsies. An increasing number of innovative platforms have been recently developed that improve not only the fidelity of the molecular analysis but also the number of tests performed on a single specimen.
- The electronic nose (e-nose) is a promising technology as a useful addition to the currently available modalities to achieve lung cancer diagnosis. The e-nose can assess the volatile organic compounds detected in the breath and derived from the cellular metabolism. Volatile organic compounds can be analyzed to identify the individual chemical elements as well as their pattern of expression to reproduce a sensorial combination similar to a fingerprint (breathprint). The e-nose can be used alone, mimicking the combinatorial selectivity of the human olfactory system, or as part of a multisensorial platform.