- In the phase 3 study entitled ALK in Lung cancer Trial of brigAtinib in 1st Line (ALTA-1L), which is a study of brigatinib in ALK inhibitor–naive advanced ALK-positive NSCLC, brigatinib exhibited superior progression-free survival (PFS) versus crizotinib in the two planned interim analyses. Here, we report the final efficacy, safety, and exploratory results.
- Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are standard therapies in advanced NSCLC. Although genotype-directed tyrosine kinase inhibitors represent the standard of care for subsets of oncogene-driven NSCLC, patients may receive ICIs during their disease course. The impact of sequential ICI and tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy on the risk of hepatotoxicity has not been described.
- Crizotinib, an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor, is a first-line treatment for ALK translocation–positive advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, patients eventually progress. Immunotherapies, including the programmed death-1 inhibitor nivolumab, have resulted in durable responses and long-term overall survival in patients with NSCLC. We hypothesized that combining targeted therapy with immunotherapy could result in more patients with responses and/or more durable responses.
- ROS1 is a validated therapeutic target in NSCLC. In a phase I study, the multitargeted MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase/anaplastic lymphoma kinase/ROS1 inhibitor crizotinib demonstrated remarkable efficacy in ROS1-rearranged NSCLCs and consequently gained approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration and by the European Medicines Agency in 2016. However, similar to other oncogene-driven lung cancers, ROS1-rearranged lung cancers treated with crizotinib eventually acquire resistance, leading to disease relapse.
- A significant portion of NSCLCs with MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase gene (MET) exon 14 skipping alterations are sensitive to small-molecule mesenchymal-epithelial transition tyrosine kinase inhibitors. However, the incidence and management of brain metastases in this molecular subset is unknown and represents an unmet clinical need.
- MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase gene exon 14 skipping (METex14) alterations represent a unique subset of oncogenic drivers in NSCLC. Preliminary clinical activity of crizotinib against METex14-positive NSCLC has been reported. The full spectrum of resistance mechanisms to crizotinib in METex14-positive NSCLC remains to be identified.
- Activation of the MET proto-oncogene (MET) highly sensitive to MET inhibition has recently been described in NSCLC through two mechanisms: high-level amplification of the MNNG HOS Transforming gene (MET) (usually expressed relative to the chromosome 7 centromere [CEP7] when using fluorescence in situ hybridization) and exon 14 alterations. As partial overlap of these biomarkers occurs, whether one is purely a surrogate for the other or both can represent true oncogenic driver states continues to be explored.
- Rapid reductions in creatinine-based estimates of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have recently been reported secondary to crizotinib use. Whether these reflect drug-induced changes in the true GFR or the validity of creatinine as a measure of kidney function in the presence of crizotinib is unknown.
- The tyrosine kinase inhibitor crizotinib is an effective therapy for patients with cancers harboring rearrangements of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene. Here, we describe two patients with advanced ALK-positive lung cancer who developed hypersensitivity to crizotinib, requiring temporary discontinuation of the drug. Both patients were treated with a rapid oral desensitization protocol allowing them to resume crizotinib without further signs or symptoms of hypersensitivity.