- South Korea is geographically located in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula (Fig. 1). The major administrative divisions in South Korea are nine provinces and seven metropolitan cities, with a current population of around 51.8 million and a density of 516 per km2. In 2018, a total of 28,628 patients (accounting for 11.7% of all newly diagnosed cancers) was diagnosed with lung cancer in South Korea. Lung cancer is the second most common cancer in men and the fifth most common cancer in women.
- In the phase 3 study entitled ALK in Lung cancer Trial of brigAtinib in 1st Line (ALTA-1L), which is a study of brigatinib in ALK inhibitor–naive advanced ALK-positive NSCLC, brigatinib exhibited superior progression-free survival (PFS) versus crizotinib in the two planned interim analyses. Here, we report the final efficacy, safety, and exploratory results.
- Stage III NSCLC represents a heterogeneous disease for which optimal treatment continues to pose a clinical challenge. Recent changes in the American Joint Commission on Cancer staging to the eighth edition has led to a shift in TNM stage grouping and redefined the subcategories (IIIA–C) in stage III NSCLC for better prognostication. Although concurrent chemoradiotherapy has remained standard-of-care for stage III NSCLC for almost 2 decades, contemporary considerations include the impact of different molecular subsets of NSCLC, and the roles of tyrosine kinase inhibitors post-definitive therapy and of immune checkpoint inhibitors following chemoradiotherapy.
- Hyperprogressive disease (HPD), characterized by accelerated tumor progression, has been proposed as a new pattern of progression after immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of HPD and investigate its predictive markers.
- In 2018 research in the field of advanced NSCLCs led to an expanded reach and impact of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) as part of a frontline treatment strategy, regardless of histologic subtype, with ICI use extended to include stage III disease, shifting the prognosis of all these patients. This new standard first-line approach opens a gap in standard second-line treatment, and older combinations may again become standard of care after progression during treatment with an ICI. The characterization of predictive biomarkers, patient selection, the definition of strategies with ICI combinations upon progression during treatment with ICIs, as well as prospective evaluation of the efficacy of ICIs in subpopulations (such as patients with poor performance status or brain metastases) represent upcoming challenges in advanced thoracic malignancies.
- SCLC accounts for about 15% of lung cancers. Although SCLC is initially sensitive to chemotherapy, it becomes aggressive and resistance to chemotherapy and remains a dismal disease, with a 20% to 30% and 1% to 3% 5-year survival rates for limited disease and extensive disease, respectively. In contrast to the situation in NSCLC, druggable targets are rare in SCLC. Despite the rarity of surgical resection and poor quality with the small size of SCLC tumor biopsy specimens, several landmark studies have demonstrated a high incidence of genomic alterations, including inactivating mutations of the tumor protein p53 gene (TP53) and retinoblastoma 1 gene (RB1) found in more than 90% of SCLCs.
- Correct mediastinal staging is critical for determination of the most appropriate management strategy in patients with non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) with that of mediastinoscopy in patients with NSCLC.