Turkey stretches from the Balkans to the Middle East and is among the larger countries in terms of land area and population (Fig. 1). Turkey’s population of approximately 85 million people encompasses a diverse genomic, ethnic, and cultural heritage with roots from several empires and civilizations dating back to the Paleolithic age. According to the GLOBOCAN 20201 registry, lung cancer (LC) comprises 17.6% of all cancer types. It ranks highest in Turkey, with 41,000 new cases in 2020 and an age-adjusted incidence rate of 41.7 and 8.7 per 100,000 for men and women, respectively.