EGFR-Mutant SCLC Exhibits Heterogeneous Phenotypes and Resistance to Common Antineoplastic DrugsApproximately 5% of patients with EGFR-activating mutations acquire EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance through SCLC transformation. However, the reason for the poor outcome and the molecular basis of EGFR-mutant SCLC that has transformed from adenocarcinoma remain unclear.
Brigatinib in Patients With Alectinib-Refractory ALK-Positive NSCLCThe second-generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor alectinib recently showed superior efficacy compared to the first-generation ALK inhibitor crizotinib in advanced ALK-rearranged NSCLC, establishing alectinib as the new standard first-line therapy. Brigatinib, another second-generation ALK inhibitor, has shown substantial activity in patients with crizotinib-refractory ALK-positive NSCLC; however, its activity in the alectinib-refractory setting is unknown.
Recent Advances in Targeting ROS1 in Lung CancerROS1 is a validated therapeutic target in NSCLC. In a phase I study, the multitargeted MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase/anaplastic lymphoma kinase/ROS1 inhibitor crizotinib demonstrated remarkable efficacy in ROS1-rearranged NSCLCs and consequently gained approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration and by the European Medicines Agency in 2016. However, similar to other oncogene-driven lung cancers, ROS1-rearranged lung cancers treated with crizotinib eventually acquire resistance, leading to disease relapse.