Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement characterizes a subgroup of patients with lung adenocarcinoma who may benefit from ALK inhibitors. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a break-apart/split-signal strategy is the gold standard to investigate ALK. The cutoff to define ALK positivity has been settled at 15% or greater. A subset of patients has ALK borderline status, showing 15% ± 5% positive cells. Several aspects, both biological and technical, might influence signals evaluation, making FISH interpretation a challenging task.