PTEN Loss Expands the Histopathologic Diversity and Lineage Plasticity of Lung Cancers Initiated by Rb1/Trp53 DeletionHigh-grade neuroendocrine tumors of the lung such as SCLC are recalcitrant cancers for which more effective systemic therapies are needed. Despite their histopathologic and molecular heterogeneity, they are generally treated as a single disease entity with similar chemotherapy regimens. Whereas marked clinical responses can be observed, they are short-lived. Inter- and intratumoral heterogeneity is considered a confounding factor in these unsatisfactory clinical outcomes, yet the origin of this heterogeneity and its impact on therapeutic responses is not well understood.
Respiratory and Cardiometabolic Comorbidities and Stages I to III NSCLC Survival: A Pooled Analysis From the International Lung Cancer ConsortiumWe explored the association of respiratory and cardiometabolic comorbidities with NSCLC overall survival (OS) and lung cancer-specific survival (LCSS), by stage, in a large, multicontinent NSCLC pooled data set.
Robotic Esophagectomy Compared With Open Esophagectomy Reduces Sarcopenia within the First Postoperative Year: A Propensity Score-Matched AnalysisSarcopenia is a known risk factor for adverse outcomes after esophageal cancer (EC) surgery. Robot-assisted minimally invasive esophagectomy (RAMIE) offers numerous advantages, including reduced morbidity and mortality. However, no evidence exists to date comparing the development of sarcopenia after RAMIE and open esophagectomy (OE). The objective was to evaluate whether the development of sarcopenia within the first postoperative year after esophagectomy is associated with the surgical approach: RAMIE versus OE.
Treatment Characteristics and Real-World Progression-Free Survival in Patients With Unresectable Stage III NSCLC Who Received Durvalumab After Chemoradiotherapy: Findings From the PACIFIC-R StudyThe phase 3 PACIFIC trial established consolidation therapy with durvalumab as standard of care for patients with unresectable, stage III NSCLC and no disease progression after definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The observational PACIFIC-R study assesses the real-world effectiveness of durvalumab in patients from an early access program. Here, we report treatment characteristics and a preplanned analysis of real-world progression-free survival (rwPFS).
UNcommon EGFR Mutations: International Case Series on Efficacy of Osimertinib in Real-Life Practice in First-LiNe Setting (UNICORN)Approximately 10% of EGFR mutations (EGFRmuts) are uncommon (ucEGFRmuts). We aimed to collect real-world data about osimertinib for patients with ucEGFRmuts.
A Phase 2 Study of Palbociclib for Recurrent or Refractory Advanced Thymic Epithelial Tumors (KCSG LU17-21)Thymic epithelial tumors (TETs) are rare but are the most common tumors of the anterior mediastinum. Platinum-based combination chemotherapy is the standard of care for such tumors and is associated with a 50% to 90% objective response rate (ORR) in metastatic disease. Nevertheless, there is no standard chemotherapeutic option after failure of platinum-based combination chemotherapy. Genetic alterations associated with the cell cycle, including pRB, p16INK4A, and cyclin D1, are most often observed in TETs.
Assessment of Updated Commission on Cancer Guidelines for Intraoperative Lymph Node Sampling in Early Stage NSCLCThe American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer recently updated its sampling recommendations for early stage NSCLC from at least 10 lymph nodes to at least one N1 (hilar) and three N2 (mediastinal) lymph node stations. Nevertheless, intraoperative lymph node sampling minimums remain subject to debate. We sought to evaluate these guidelines in patients with early stage NSCLC.
Cytisine Therapy Improved Smoking Cessation in the Randomized Screening and Multiple Intervention on Lung Epidemics Lung Cancer Screening TrialCytisine, a partial agonist-binding nicotine acetylcholine receptor, is a promising cessation intervention. We conducted a single-center, randomized, controlled trial (RCT) in Italy to assess the efficacy and tolerability of cytisine as a smoking cessation therapy among lung cancer screening participants.
Efficacy and Safety of SH-1028 in Patients With EGFR T790M-Positive NSCLC: A Multicenter, Single-Arm, Open-Label, Phase 2 TrialAs a novel third-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), SH-1028 (formerly oritinib) is developed to inhibit both sensitizing EGFR mutations and EGFR T790M mutation.
Efficacy and Safety of Befotertinib (D-0316) in Patients With EGFR T790M-Mutated NSCLC That Had Progressed After Prior EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Therapy: A Phase 2, Multicenter, Single-Arm, Open-Label StudyBefotertinib (D-0316) is a novel, third-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). This study evaluated befotertinib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC who developed an EGFR T790M mutation after progression on first- or second-generation EGFR TKI therapy.
Asbestos Lung Burden Does Not Predict Survival in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: A Necropsy-Based Study of 185 CasesMalignant pleural mesothelioma is an asbestos-related disease with poor survival. The prognostic role of histologic subtype is well established. Some studies (without a biological hypothesis) suggested that higher asbestos lung burden is associated with reduced survival.
Efficacy and Safety of Limertinib (ASK120067) in Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic EGFR Thr790Met-Mutated NSCLC: A Multicenter, Single-Arm, Phase 2b StudyLimertinib (ASK120067) is a newly developed third-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting both sensitizing EGFR and EGFR Thr790Met (T790M) mutations. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of limertinib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic EGFR T790M-mutated NSCLC.
A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Gene-Gene Interaction Study of Lung Cancer Susceptibility in Europeans With a Trans-Ethnic Validation in AsiansAlthough genome-wide association studies have been conducted to investigate genetic variation of lung tumorigenesis, little is known about gene-gene (G × G) interactions that may influence the risk of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Pulmonary Asbestos Fiber Burden Is Related to Patient Survival in Malignant Pleural MesotheliomaMalignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is associated with poor prognosis and is strongly associated with occupational asbestos exposure. Given the importance of asbestos exposure in MPM pathogenesis, we retrospectively analyzed the types and concentrations of asbestos fibers within the lung tissues of patients with MPM and investigated their effects on all-cause mortality.
Efficacy of Atezolizumab in Patients With Advanced NSCLC Receiving Concomitant Antibiotic or Proton Pump Inhibitor Treatment: Pooled Analysis of Five Randomized Control TrialsGut dysbiosis may reduce immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) efficacy. Antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are commonly used drugs causing gut dysbiosis. There is limited randomized controlled trial (RCT) evidence on whether antibiotics or PPIs impact ICI benefit versus comparator treatments.
Hypersensitivity Reactions to Selpercatinib Treatment With or Without Prior Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy in Patients With NSCLC in LIBRETTO-001Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy has been found to increase the risk/severity of immune-mediated adverse events with subsequent kinase inhibitor treatment in oncogenically driven cancers. We explored the risk for hypersensitivity with selpercatinib, a first-in-class highly selective and potent, central nervous system-active RET inhibitor, in prior ICI-treated patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC compared with their ICI-naive counterparts.
Programmed Death-Ligand 1 Copy Number Loss in NSCLC Associates With Reduced Programmed Death-Ligand 1 Tumor Staining and a Cold ImmunophenotypeProgrammed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) copy number gains may be predictive of clinical response to immunotherapy in NSCLC. This study investigated PD-L1 copy number variations in tumor resection and bronchoscopy biopsies and its relationship with PD-L1 tumor cell staining and inflammatory gene expression.
Evaluating Prognostic Factors for Sex Differences in Lung Cancer Survival: Findings From a Large Australian CohortWomen tend to survive a lung cancer diagnosis longer than men; however potential drivers of this sex-related disparity remain largely elusive. We quantified factors related to sex differences in lung cancer survival in a large prospective cohort in Australia.
Improving Outcomes in NSCLC: Optimum Dose Fractionation in Radical Radiotherapy MattersWe analyzed a comprehensive national radiotherapy data set to compare outcomes of the most frequently used moderate hypofractionation regimen (55 Gy in 20 fractions) and conventional fractionation regimen (60–66 Gy in 30–33 fractions).
NAVIGATE 24-Month Results: Electromagnetic Navigation Bronchoscopy for Pulmonary Lesions at 37 Centers in Europe and the United StatesElectromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB) is a minimally invasive, image-guided approach to access lung lesions for biopsy or localization for treatment. However, no studies have reported prospective 24-month follow-up from a large, multinational, generalizable cohort. This study evaluated ENB safety, diagnostic yield, and usage patterns in an unrestricted, real-world observational design.
Camrelizumab Plus Carboplatin and Paclitaxel as First-Line Treatment for Advanced Squamous NSCLC (CameL-Sq): A Phase 3 TrialCamrelizumab, a humanized immunoglobulin G4-κ monoclonal antibody against programmed cell death protein 1, has exhibited antitumor activity and tolerability across various tumors, including lung cancers. We conducted this double-blind, randomized phase 3 trial to investigate the efficacy and safety of camrelizumab or placebo plus chemotherapy as first-line treatment for patients with advanced squamous NSCLC. The predictive value of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) dynamics was also analyzed.
Incidence of Smoking-Related Second Primary Cancers After Lung Cancer in Germany: An Analysis of Nationwide Cancer Registry DataApproximately 80% of lung cancer cases in Germany are attributable to smoking. Patients with a lung cancer diagnosis may remain at increased risk of developing smoking-related second primary cancers (SPCs).
Lung Cancer Screening Considerations During Respiratory Infection Outbreaks, Epidemics or Pandemics: An International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Early Detection and Screening Committee ReportAfter the results of two large, randomized trials, the global implementation of lung cancer screening is of utmost importance. However, coronavirus disease 2019 infections occurring at heightened levels during the current global pandemic and also other respiratory infections can influence scan interpretation and screening safety and uptake. Several respiratory infections can lead to lesions that mimic malignant nodules and other imaging changes suggesting malignancy, leading to an increased level of follow-up procedures or even invasive diagnostic procedures.
CCTG BR34: A Randomized Phase 2 Trial of Durvalumab and Tremelimumab With or Without Platinum-Based Chemotherapy in Patients With Metastatic NSCLCFirst-line therapy for patients with metastatic NSCLC includes checkpoint inhibitor monotherapy, dual checkpoint inhibition, or combination with chemotherapy. We compared outcomes with combination chemoimmunotherapy versus dual checkpoint inhibition as first-line treatment for patients with metastatic NSCLC.
Efficacy of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 Vaccine in Patients With Thoracic Cancer: A Prospective Study Supporting a Third Dose in Patients With Minimal Serologic Response After Two Vaccine DosesCoronavirus disease 2019 resulted in a 30% mortality rate in patients with thoracic cancer. Given that patients with cancer were excluded from serum antisevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine registration trials, it is still unknown whether they would develop a protective antispike antibody response after vaccination. This prospective vaccine monitoring study primarily aimed to assess humoral responses to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in patients with thoracic cancer.