Anti-PD1 Antibody Treatment and the Development of Acute Pulmonary Tuberculosis


      Recently, cancer immunotherapy by immune checkpoint inhibitors has been considered one of the pillars for the treatment of cancer. Nivolumab is the first immune checkpoint inhibitor approved for lung cancer treatment in Japan. Although nivolumab has superior survival benefits and fewer adverse events than cytotoxic agents, it can generate dysimmune toxicities, known as immune-related adverse events. Although autoimmune manifestations are well-known immune-related adverse events, the development of infectious diseases is rare. Here, we report on a patient with advanced NSCLC in whom pulmonary tuberculosis developed rapidly during nivolumab treatment and discuss the potential mechanisms as well as what is known about infections during checkpoint inhibitor therapy.


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